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Kennedy Translations

Glossary

Working language

The working language of a translator is the language which he masters just as good as his native language, so that native speakers can notice no difference or only a very slight difference to their own language skills. This ensures a high level of competency in this language, so that an optimal translation from the foreign language into the native language is guaranteed.

Certification

It often happens that the translation of a document that is to be submitted to the authorities has to be certified. A translator who is empowered by the court and certified can handle a certified translation for you. Here, it is to be made clear that the translator not only confirms the correctness of the original, but he also confirms the correctness and completeness of the translation.

Computer-Aided Translation

A Computer-Aided Translation is a translation that is prepared with the help of a computer. To do so, the specialised term Computer-Aided Translation is used, which is often abbreviated to CAT (see also CAT Tools). The Computer-Aided Translation is to be distinguished from the Machine Translation, which is only implemented by a computer and is created without the intervention of a human translator.

Corporate Language?

Corporate Language is a standardised company-specific language, of which Corporate Behavior is an essential element. It has a substantial influence on the Corporate Identity (internally and externally) and thereby on the Corporate Image.

Desktop Publishing (DTP)

As part of the Desktop Publishing (DTP) work, images and text files are processed ready for printing or for digital use, and are merged into a format that is ready for printing or publishing.

Express Translations

An Express translation is a translation that has to be prepared and delivered within an especially tight timeframe. In this case, the texts, for example, can be split amongst several translators in order to handle the volume of work within the time constraints.

Specialised Translations

Every specialised field (for example, commerce, science and medicine) has its own specialised language or “jargon” or “slang”. In the context of a technical translation, the translation is prepared so that it corresponds to the usual standards of this "technical language".

Proofreading

Proofreading is an important step during the translation process which ranges from the source text to the finished target text (the translation). The actual translation text is checked for correctness most often in electronic form and compared with the source text. The main focus during proofreading is placed on formal aspects and is thereby differentiated from editing. The final result of the translation is checked for errors in formality, coherence, idiomaticity, completeness, formatting, etc. This can take place in several steps.

Editing

During editing, the main emphasis is on reviewing the correct interpretation of the content of the source text as well as the completeness of the translation.

Machine Translation

In the course of a Machine Translation (MT), the translation is prepared by a computer program. Machine translations have already been around a very long time and are not a new invention, nevertheless the results of a fully automated translation process are still imperfect. Without the intervention of a human translator it is not possible to achieve an optimal translation. There are also mixed forms of machine translation and human translation whereby a human translator corrects or completes the machine translation.

Native Language and Native Language Principle

A native language is the language which is acquired preferentially in childhood or early youthhood and expanded through further education, so that it is mastered fully. To master a language on the native-speaking level also involves having complete knowledge of the current and past social developments in the country concerned. Generally speaking, the native language principle implies that translators should only translate into their native language, if a higher level linguistic quality is expected, as optimal results are achieved in this way.

Project Management

Every translation order can be regarded as a project. The administration, coordination and planning of these translation orders needs particular planning and requires special workflows which take account of its complexity, the language pair, the level of difficulty of the text, and especially the delivery dates and deadlines or the translation of a text into several languages in parallel.

Software Localisation

The term Software Localisation describes the process of coordination and language-specific adaptation of user interfaces of computer programs, online help and printed or digital documentation with its menus, dialog fields and buttons to the circumstances of the particular destination country.

Language Mediation

The term Language Mediation is the generic term for translating and interpreting.

Technical Documentation

A technical document is a document which describes technical products, such as instruction manuals, operating instructions or safety instructions.

Terminology Databases

Terminology Databases can consist of databases, equivalency tables and terminology lists, which are useful for standardising the in-company language (see also Corporate Language). For example, a company-specific glossary or dictionaries come in useful here. Terminology Databases also make the translator’s work easier.

Translation Memory Systems (also TM Systems)

A Translation Memory System (e.g. Trados, Across, Déjà Vu or Transit) is software through which segments of the source text are saved with the related target language segments in a database during translation. They can thereby be called up and reused when they arise repeatedly in the same or similar form.

This has several advantages: on the one hand, the translator does not have to search for phrases that were already translated in the past, and on the other hand translations can be prepared consistently with other translations, which is especially advantageous when several translators are working on one translation at the same time.

CAT Tools

The acronym CAT stands for Computer-Aided Translation and is the collective term for programs which can assist the translator during his work. This includes localisation tools, terminology administration systems, machine translation programs, translation memory systems, electronic dictionaries and glossaries, analysis programs, project management software, counting programs, etc.

Certified Translations

Translation of certificates is understood to be the translation of documents which are of importance especially in legal translations (e.g. notarial records, court judgements, private transcripts and certificates). Certificates are translated by sworn translators. They confirm the completeness and correctness of the translation through their stamp. If necessary, the documents can also be legalised by a notary.

Certified Translators

Certified translators are translators who are allowed to translate and certify documents for authorities and courts. They have made a general oath which empowers them to do this. The conditions for administration of an oath or authorisation vary from Federal State to Federal State. Nevertheless, a basic requirement is a vocational diploma as a translator or interpreter or a compulsory qualifying examination.

Website Localisation

Translation and localisation of websites, for example of multi-language company websites. This includes, amongst other things, the adaptation of various files and formats, and adaptation of the images and videos presented.

Counting Program

As the counting program integrated in MS Word is not sufficient for the needs of a professional translation, programs for counting characters, words, lines or pages of source and target texts were developed. Some of them have additional functions such as the automatic creation of an invoice.